According to a University of Georgia poultry specialist, if chickens eat a bit of charcoal it helps lower the amount of ammonia in their manure, which can lead to happier, healthier and more environmentally friendly chickens.Casey Ritz, a UGA Cooperative Extension poultry scientist, has been researching charcoal as an additive to poultry bedding to control ammonia levels in chicken houses for the past four years. It was working, but he thought charcoal might be able to do more from inside the chicken.“Our question was, ‘if we feed it to chickens, could we stop ammonia production before it hits the ground?’” he said. High levels of ammonia in litter can affect a chicken’s growth and performance.One group of chickens was given feed with charcoal added. Another group received normal feed without charcoal. Ritz and his colleagues then took the chicken manure and incubated it. They found a significant drop in the amount of ammonia in the manure of the chickens fed the charcoal compared to the chickens who ate regular feed, he said.The researchers were initially worried that the chickens might not eat feed with charcoal in it. Chicken feed is usually light brown. The charcoal turns it black. Fortunately, the color didn’t bother the chickens. And, thanks to the charcoal’s affect on manure color, the researchers knew without a doubt which chickens had charcoal in their diets.Charcoal is very porous, making it an excellent natural filter. It has no nutritional value for chickens, so it would only be filler in their feed. The scientists now want to see how much charcoal needs to be added to a chicken’s diet in order to be effective.“We want to have the biggest bang for the buck with added char,” Ritz said. Right now, he thinks that number is between 1 percent and 2 percent of poultry feed. He’ll conduct experiments in the next few months to figure final formulation. Better fertilizerChickens produce ammonia through their manure, also called litter. The nitrogen in the feed they eat is converted into uric acid in their intestines. When charcoal is used in the feed, the bacteria in the manure convert the uric acid into ammonium, not ammonia. This makes the litter less odorous or harmful, and can make it a better nitrogen fertilizer for crops, too.“Chicken litter is a great fertilizer,” Ritz said. “But if we can enhance it a little bit, we’d make it even better. Chicken litter, from a volume standpoint, is only about 3 percent nitrogen. If we could enhance it a couple of percentage points, it would be a big deal.”Air qualityAmmonia dissipates quickly into the air. The human nose detects ammonia between 5 and 50 parts per million. “We can’t even get 5 parts per million very far outside of a chicken house,” he said. In other words, unless someone is standing inside a poultry house, it isn’t the ammonia that sinks; it’s other odors. Ammonia is not on the list of the Environmental Protection Agency’s six top air pollutants. But lowering it can help overall air quality. “When it really comes down to it, we need to stop ammonia before it’s made instead of trying to mitigate it after it is emitted,” Ritz said. “I think this is one of the strategies that has a good chance of success.”Next stepsNext, Ritz and his colleagues want to make the charcoal feed additive affordable for poultry producers and find companies that will produce and sell it as a poultry additive. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture must approve the use of charcoal as a commercial poultry feed additive. The charcoal is already approved for human consumption, he said.
The US House on Tuesday passed a provision advocated by Rep. Peter Welch that would close the Reverse Morris Trust (RMT) tax loophole and save taxpayers $260 million. The loophole was used by Verizon to avoid federal taxes when it sold its northern New England landline operations to FairPoint Communications in 2008.By a vote of 246 to 178, the House approved the Small Business and Infrastructure Jobs Act (H.R. 4849). The legislation, which invests in local infrastructure projects and small business tax credits, is paid for in part by closing the RMT loophole. It incorporates a bill introduced by Welch and 21 other members of Congress this January (H.R. 4486), which focused on closing the RMT loophole.“This loophole is bad for taxpayers, bad for consumers and bad for workers. By closing it and investing the savings in job creation, hardworking Americans – not corporations – will benefit,” Welch said.Under the Reverse Morris Trust, a parent company can spin-off a subsidiary that merges into an unrelated company tax-free, so long as the shareholders of the parent company control more than 50 percent of the voting rights and economic value of the resulting merged company. In northern New England, Verizon reportedly avoided hundreds of millions in taxes when it spun-off its landline operations to FairPoint, leaving the latter with overwhelming debt.Currently, parent companies must pay taxes on gains from their subsidiaries if they receive cash payments, but not if they receive payments in the form of debt securities. H.R. 4849 changes the tax code so that debt securities paid to a parent company are taxed the same way as cash payments, removing the incentive to leave a subsidiary saddled with debt.In addition to closing the RMT loophole, H.R. 4849 would:· Extend the Build America Bonds program to make it cheaper for state and local governments to finance the rebuilding of schools, sewers, hospitals and transit projects.· Exclude small businesses from capital gains· Increase the tax deduction for start-up expenditures to encourage the formation of new small businesses.Source: Welch’s office. 3.24.2010.# # #
Branthwaite is a 17-year-old ball playing defender who can also play in midfield. Virginia is a goalkeeper from Portugal who struggled during a loan spell at Reading. read also:Liverpool will wear New Balance for rest of season Despite that poor spell, Virginia is highly rated at Finch Farm, with under-23s coach David Unsworth recently praising him. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Everton boss, Carlo Ancelotti, is promoting two players from the club’s youth setup to first-team training. Loading… Jarrad Branthwaite and Joao Virginia got the chance to show their skills in training this week, per the Liverpool Echo. Ancelotti has a chance to test some players in the remaining games of the season. The club are well clear of the relegation zone, while they are unlikely to battle for a Europa League place.Advertisement
Published on February 14, 2016 at 6:17 pm Contact Connor: [email protected] | @connorgrossman Facebook Twitter Google+ Cornelia Fondren dished the ball to an open Alexis Peterson behind the arc, who emerged from a fray of N.C. State defenders.Peterson sank the 3 and then swished in another on SU’s next possession to rescue the Orange from a deficit as the final ticks dribbled off the clock. She capped off her eight-point fourth-quarter run with a pair of free throws to put Syracuse up for good.“Your mentality has to be in attack mode and to want to take big shots, and Alexis wants to do that,” Hillsman said. “Anytime she gets into the corner or into the paint, it’s always a good shot for us.”After shooting 23 percent from the field in the first half, the Orange (20-6, 10-3 Atlantic Coast) rebounded in the game’s latter 20 minutes to narrowly top the Wolfpack (17-9, 8-5), 55-52, in Raleigh, North Carolina on Sunday afternoon.Before Peterson’s late heroics, Briana Day notched her sixth double-double of the season with a 10-point third quarter that Syracuse entered down by six. Her final basket of the frame put SU up, 35-34, and came on the heels of her ninth rebound off a long missed 3 from Butler.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textDay’s amid of a season-best stretch of games, with 30 rebounds and 47 points in the Orange’s last three games.“Every shot she didn’t block, she changed,” Hillsman said of Day.She paved the way for what played out in the game’s final stanza, and cemented her double-double with a rebound off of an errant layup by N.C. State’s Jennifer Mathurin.Butler then weaved her way down the court and Day fed her a long pass about half the distance of the court. The NCAA’s active 3-point leader pulled up from long range and sunk one of her three 3s in the contest, this one putting SU up 40-37.But the 5-foot-11 Butler was handicapped on defense with four fouls, and in part allowed the Wolfpack to better pick apart SU’s zone and drive the paint in the fourth quarter.“We gotta keep our team on the floor,” Hillsman said. “We have to play a little bit smarter.”N.C. State forward Chelsea Nelson penetrated Syracuse’s counterattack and laid in a basket to knot the score at 45 with 5:40 remaining. A pair of free throws from the Wolfpack’s Dominique Wilson and Miah Spencer stretched out a four-point advantage over SU.Peterson took over the game from there and began her eight-point run. She led the Orange with 16 points in another second-half push, one that might’ve been strong enough to start penciling games into March.“It was huge,” Hillsman said of the win. “… Normally in our conference, 10 (wins) is enough to get into the NCAA tournament. So we said we wanted to get to 10 and start counting from there.” Comments