When humans have parasites, the organisms live in our bodies, co-opt our resources, and cause disease. However, it turns out that parasites themselves can have their own co-habitants.Researchers from Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University have found that the pathogenicity of the sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis — the cause of trichomoniasis — is fueled by a viral invader. Trichomoniasis infections are more common than all bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD) combined. Annually, trichomoniasis affects nearly 250 million people, typically as vaginitis in women and urethritis in men.“Trichomoniasis is associated with devastating consequences for women due to inflammation and related risks of reproductive disease,” said Raina Fichorova, leader of the research team as well as associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “Our future goal is to determine how the viral symbiont and its inflammatory ‘halo’ affect the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight.”“This is only one of two incidences that we know of for which the pathogenicity of a protozoan virus has been characterized,” said Max Nibert, Harvard Medical School professor of microbiology and immunology and co-author of the paper. “When found together, the result is an increase in virulence of the protozoan parasite to the human host, leading to exacerbated disease.”This study, which was initiated by a Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grant, will be published online in Public Library of Science (PLoS) One.Rather than invading human cells, Trichomonas vaginalis attaches to their surface and feeds on them, sometimes remaining asymptomatic for a period of time. The virus, called Trichomonasvirus, infects the protozoan and increases its pathogenic power by fueling virus-specific inflammatory responses.Moreover, carrying the protozoan parasite predisposes women to acquire sexually transmitted viruses, particularly HIV and human papillomavirus, or HPV, both of which can lead to serious diseases such as AIDS and cervical cancer, respectively. Fichorova and Nibert have recently obtained funding from the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research to find out if the virus itself is directly responsible for increased HIV risk.According to Nibert, the virus-parasite symbiosis is the norm rather than the exception with this particular protozoan. Upwards of 80 percent of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates carry the virus. “Unlike flu viruses, for example, this virus can’t spread by jumping out of the cell into another one,” said Nibert, who has pioneered molecular biology work on double-stranded RNA viruses, a category that includes Trichomonasvirus. “It just spreads between cells when they divide or mate.”According to the researchers, it is this double-stranded nature of the viral genome that contributes to increased virulence of the protozoan parasite. “The double-stranded RNA seems important to the signaling process,” added Nibert.Currently, trichomoniasis is treated with the antibiotic metronidazole. But this treatment is only effective on the protozoan. “When the medication is used, the dying or stressed protozoa release unharmed virions, which then signal to the human cells,” explained Fichorova. As a result, the symptoms are aggravated, and this in turn might increase the danger trichomoniasis poses to pregnant women and their children.“Ahead is more research to better understand the viral cycle and structural features that might be vulnerable to drugs, which will lead to opening new doors for better treatment of trichomoniasis and related diseases,” said Fichorova. “Our complementary expertise, interdisciplinary team efforts, and strong collaboration is the key to our future success.”Nibert added that basic research on Trichomonas vaginalis is not nearly as supported as he thinks it should be. “It is unfortunate that a human pathogen of such worldwide significance has been neglected to such a degree,” he said.The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, a Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grant, the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, and the National Center for Research Resources.
AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThisAlpena — Folks will get a look at prehistoric life on Thursday as John O’Shea of the University of Michigan will lead a discussion on the topic at the Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center.Water levels were lower 9,000 years ago, exposing dry land in parts of Lake Huron. Evidence of Caribou Hunting and homes found deep in the lake have been identified through sonar and ROV (remotely operated vehicles) technology. SCUBA divers have explored these different sites as well, collecting evidence of the subarctic Ice Age environment long ago.“There’s science happening in the sanctuary all over,” said Maritime Archaeologist Stephanie Gandulla. “People come from the different universities throughout Michigan from around the country to different biological, geological, and archaeological research so we are really excited when we have the opportunity to bring those people in and share their research with the public. ”The lecture begins at 7:00pm in the Great Lakes Maritime Heritage Center’s theater. Doors open at 6:30pm. The event is free and open to the public. For more information call the phone number 989-884-6200.AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to MoreAddThis Tags: archaeology, AUVs, Caribou, Evidence, john o’shea, Lake Huron, lecture series, NOAA, prehistoric, ROVs, Science, SONAR, Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, University of MichiganContinue ReadingPrevious What’s Trending for August 8Next What’s Trending for August 9
Sale of tickets for the friendly match between the national football teams of Switzerland and B&H will start on the 19th of February, according to the Football Association of B&H.The match Switzerland – B&H will be played on the 29th of March in Zurich. All interested fans will be able to buy tickets from the 19th of February through the portal Ticketcorner.ch.Fans of the national team of B&H will be placed in the sector D28 – B31.Ticket price is 39 CHF (35.70 EUR).Dragons will also play friendly match against the national team of Luxembourg on the 25th of February, and the match will be played in Luxembourg.Our national team should also play with Spain, but this information has not been officially confirmed yet.(Source: D. B./Klix.ba)
0Shares0000All of the second-half pressure paid off on 76 minutes when James Milner played a lovely ball to Salah, who turned Harry Maguire and finished into the net. Photo/COURTESYLIVERPOOL, United Kingdom, Dec 30 – Mohamed Salah scored twice as Liverpool came from behind to maintain their push for a Champions League place with 2-1 victory over Leicester on Saturday.Jamie Vardy put Leicester ahead but Liverpool, who had new £75 million ($100 million) signing Vigil van Dijk watching from the Anfield stands, fought back after the interval to secure the points. Salah was again instrumental for Jurgen Klopp’s side as he took his tally to 17 Premier League goals this season with two fine finishes.Liverpool, who remain fourth, are four points clear of fifth placed Tottenham.Klopp’s goalkeeper rotation policy saw Loris Karius start ahead of Simon Mignolet, who dropped to the bench, and after just three minutes the German was forced to pick the ball out of the net.Joel Matip’s timid pass from the back sold Emre Can short and Vicente Iborra’s sharpness saw him steal possession and quickly release Riyad Mahrez down the right flank.The Algeria winger glided past left-back Andrew Robertson and his teasing low cross was met by Vardy, who showed his penalty box predatory instincts to nip in front of Matip and finish.It was Vardy’s 10th goal of the season in all competitions as he again scored against a top-six club having netted previously in matches against Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham and both Manchester clubs.Liverpool shook off their sluggishness and should have equalised moments after Vardy’s opener when Salah was found by Sadio Mane only to get his angles wrong and drag a shot wide from eight yards.Philippe Coutinho stung the palms of Kasper Schmeichel with a long-range effort while Mane had the ball in the net from Robertson’s cross only to be correctly flagged offside.Liverpool continued to threaten the visitors’ goal from distance with Joe Gomez and Roberto Firmino both going close before the break.Where Salah had snatched at some of his chances in the first half, his composure early in the second period saw him equalise for the home side.– Pinpoint finish –Seven minutes after the interval the Egypt international chased Mane’s clever backheel into the penalty area before his close control took him past Daniel Amartey on to his favoured left foot.With the Kop screaming for the net to bulge, Salah took a moment then arrowed a pinpoint finish through the legs of Schmeichel.An unsavoury incident followed as Firmino, eager to get the ball for Leicester to kick-off, and Harry Maguire grappled inside the goalmouth before referee Neil Swarbrick stepped in.Mane had the ball in the net again just after the hour, but again he was in an offside position.Leicester’s chances were more fleeting although Karius breathed a sigh of relief when Wilfred Ndidi’s sweetly struck shot following a corner whistled past the post.Salah was to prove the difference between the two sides, though, when he added his and Liverpool’s second to put the Reds in front with 14 minutes remaining.Firmino rolled the ball in to James Milner and his clever flick slipped in Salah. Milner looked for the return pass, but Salah had other ideas.The 25-year-old showed his strength to roll the otherwise faultless Maguire before he clinically dispatched the ball past Schmeichel.Leicester piled on the pressure in the remainder of the game but this time Liverpool’s defence stood up to the job and held on to clinch the three points. 0Shares0000(Visited 2 times, 1 visits today)