Marine calcifiers are amongst the most vulnerable organisms to ocean acidification due to reduction in the availability of carbonate ions for skeletal/shell deposition. However, there are limited long-term studies on the possible impacts of increased pCO2 on these taxa. A 7 month CO2 perturbation experiment was performed on one of the most calcium carbonate dependent species, the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva, which inhabits the Southern Ocean where carbonate ion saturation levels are amongst the lowest on Earth. The effects of the predicted environmental conditions in 2050 and 2100 on the growth rate and ability to repair shell in L. uva were tested with four treatments; a low temperature control (0 °C, pH 7.98), a pH control (2 °C, pH 8.05), mid-century scenario (2 °C, pH 7.75) and end-century scenario (2 °C, pH 7.54). Environmental change impacts on shell repair are rarely studied, but here repair was not affected by either acidified conditions or temperature. Growth rate was also not impacted by low pH. Elevated temperature did, however, increase growth rates. The ability of L. uva to continue, and even increase shell production in warmer and acidified seawater suggests that this species can acclimate to these combined stressors and generate suitable conditions for shell growth at the site of calcification.
View post tag: americas Image of the Day: USS Nitze Transits the Suez Canal View post tag: Transits Quartermaster Seaman Dalton Whitworth, assigned to the guided-missile destroyer USS Nitze (DDG 94), stands watch on the bridge wing as the ship transits the Suez Canal. Back to overview,Home naval-today Image of the Day: USS Nitze Transits the Suez Canal July 2, 2014 Share this article View post tag: Naval View post tag: USS Nitze View post tag: Image of the Day View post tag: Navy View post tag: Suez Canal Authorities View post tag: News by topic Nitze is conducting operations in the U.S. 6th Fleet area of responsibility in support of U.S. national security interests in Africa.USS Nitze (DDG-94) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. She is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Paul Nitze, who served as Secretary of the Navy under president Lyndon B. Johnson and as chief arms control adviser in the administration of president Ronald Reagan.[mappress]Naval Today Staff, July 02, 2014; Image: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Maddelin Angebrand
The Honors College occasionally has openings for part-time Adjunctprofessors. Interested and qualified candidates are invited toapply to be considered for these temporary, part-time positions.Adjunct appointments are made on a semester basis.Applications are sought from teaching faculty in arts, humanities,and social sciences. The University of Houston, with one of themost diverse student bodies in the nation, seeks to recruit andretain a diverse community of scholars.The University of Houston is an Equal Opportunity/AffirmativeAction institution. Minorities, women, veterans and persons withdisabilities are encouraged to apply.Qualifications :Ph.D. preferred.Notes to Applicant: Official transcripts are required for afaculty appointment and will be requested upon selection of thefinal candidate. All positions at the university are securitysensitive and will require a criminal history check.
The Principal and Bursar of St Anne’s College came under fire from students angry over the lack of heating in a College accommodation block. On Sunday’s JCR meeting, students demanded to know if they would be financially compensated after three out of four boilers failed in the Ruth Deech building, which left them without heating in noughth week .Additionally a burst pipe flooded much of the first floor of the building. The College Domestic Bursar, Martin Jackson, explained, “We’ve suffered a whole series of boiler failures over the Christmas period. That wasn’t something I expected.” In noughth week Jackson emailed St Anne’s students to say that they were experiencing problems but that the system would be fixed by Friday. However five days later on 14 January, he emailed students again, saying, “The part needed to revive three of the four boilers is not available in this country and is being sent from Germany.” He reassured students that the College was “examining urgent alternative sources of heat”. Pru Buxton, a second year living in the Ruth Deech building, first raised the issue with the College. She said that assurances that the heating would be fixed had prompted her not to bring her own heater and that she had been inconvenienced by the matter. 80 electric heaters were then bought and distributed to the students living in the Ruth Deech building. However it later emerged that 18 conference guests were moved out of their non-heated rooms and offered alternative accommodation whereas students were not.In response to this revelation, Jackson told the common room, “That particular group had paid a very large amount of money and we would be in breach of contact if we did not provide those facilities.” St Anne’s JCR President Amaru Villanueva Rance said, “We aren’t considering accusing the College staff of negligence as we don’t think this is the issue. Going down this route would damage our relations with them and would be ultimately unproductive. “We are satisfied that they have dealt with the issue of repairing the boilers as best they could. We are trying to look at our tenancy agreements to see what students are legally entitled to in terms of compensation. To this effect, we will seek legal advice from OUSU and the Citizens Advice Bureau, as we believe liability falls on the College.”
Most bakers say they have yet to see bills decrease despite the price of gas falling this month.The price of natural gas through September was 26p a therm. But on October 3 this dropped to -5p a therm as traders were caught off guard by the opening of the £5.5bn Langeled pipeline from Norway to Yorkshire, which flooded the market with gas.Scottish Association of Master Bakers’s chief executive, Kirk Hunter, said many bakers are locked into contracts so if the price of gas goes down they will not feel the benefits. He said: “Energy costs are one of the largest costs next to labour that bakers face and the increases over the last year have been nothing short of horrendous. The industry will be looking to gas suppliers to cut prices. We want to see companies moving quicker to reduce costs.”The price of gas for delivery in January has fallen 6%. However, Ofgem has warned that it usually takes around nine months for cuts to be felt by the customer, despite 80% price increases occurring over the last three years.See next issue of British Baker for News Analysis.
Graham Savage of Cuckoo’s Bakery in Edinburgh showed us how to make Cranachan Cupcakes topped with a whisky buttercream, raspberries and toasted oats as inspired by the traditional Scottish dessert.Cuckoo’s Bakery was set up back in February by Graham and his business partner Vidya Sarjoo. The full recipe will be available soon to download as a PDF from www.bakeryinfo.co.uk.For more information on Cuckoo’s Bakery, visit www.cuckoosbakery.co.ukMusic: For Tomorrow by Emerald Park (Creative Commons licence)YouTube link: http://youtu.be/1UClyHH4gBU
Consumer expert Richard Lloyd has been appointed as a Non-Executive Director to the board of the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), the Economic Secretary, announced today (4 March 2019).Richard has held senior roles in numerous consumer organisations, including Which?, where he was Executive Director. He is a founding trustee of the Money and Mental Health Policy Institute and is currently Chair of Resolver, the consumer complaint resolution organisation.Richard Lloyd’s three-year term will begin on 1 April 2019.Baroness Sarah Hogg has also been re-appointed as a Non-Executive Director for a second three-year term, starting on 1 April 2019. Baroness Hogg is an experienced director of listed companies including 3i, Carnival and GKN, and public bodies including the BBC. She is the FCA’s Senior Independent Director. Sarah Hogg is a member of the House of Lords where she sits as a Crossbencher.Finally, Amelia Fletcher OBE’s second term as a Non-Executive Director has also been extended for a further year, up to 31 March 2020. She will also continue to serve as a Non-Executive Director and Senior Independent Director of the Payment Systems Regulator during this period. Amelia is Professor of Competition Policy at Norwich Business School and a Non-Executive Director of the Competition and Markets Authority.John Glen, Economic Secretary to the Treasury, said: Richard Lloyd’s wealth of experience as a consumer expert will be a valuable contribution to the crucial work of the FCA, ensuring our financial sector keeps customers at the heart of how firms do business. I am also delighted to re-appoint Baroness Sarah Hogg for a further three-year term, and to extend Amelia Fletcher’s second term by a further year. Both Sarah and Amelia have brought considerable expertise to the FCA Board, and I am grateful for their continued contributions. Charles Randell, FCA Chair, said: Consumer expert Richard Lloyd has been appointed as a Non-Executive Director to the board of the FCA Sarah Hogg has been reappointed for a second term as Non-Executive Director Amelia Fletcher’s second term as Non-Executive Director has been extended About the Financial Conduct AuthorityThe Financial Conduct Authority is the conduct regulator for 58,000 financial services firms and financial markets in the UK and the prudential regulator for over 18,000 of those firms.The current FCA Board members are: the appointments of Amelia Fletcher, Sarah Hogg, and Richard Lloyd as Non-Executive Directors were regulated by the Office of the Commissioner for Public Appointments Andrew Bailey – executive FCA Board member and Chief Executive Catherine Bradley – non-executive FCA Board member Amelia Fletcher OBE – non-executive FCA Board member Baroness Hogg – non-executive FCA Board member Rt Hon Ruth Kelly – non-executive FCA Board member Jane Platt CBE – non-executive FCA Board member Charles Randell CBE – Chair of the FCA Nick Stace – non-executive FCA Board member Sam Woods – non-executive FCA Board member Christopher Woolard – executive FCA Board member and Director of Strategy and Competition Further information: Richard’s proven expertise and deep experience of both consumer issues and financial services mean he is ideally placed to further reinforce the FCA Board’s consideration of consumer needs. I know he will make a significant contribution and I look forward to working with him. I am also delighted that that Sarah Hogg and Amelia Fletcher will continue to serve on the board. Sarah Hogg is a member of the House of Lords where she sits as a Crossbencher. Amelia Fletcher and Richard Lloyd have not engaged in any political activity in the past five years
Invasive plants could become even more prevalent and destructive as climate change continues, according to a new analysis of data stretching back more than 150 years.Writing in the journal PLoS ONE, the Harvard University scientists who conducted the study say that nonnative plants, and especially invasive species, appear to thrive during times of climate change because they’re better able to adjust the timing of annual activities such as flowering and fruiting.“These results demonstrate for the first time that climate change likely plays a direct role in promoting nonnative species’ success,” says author Charles C. Davis, assistant professor in Harvard’s Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology. “Secondly, they highlight the importance of flowering time as a trait that may facilitate the success of nonnative species. This kind of information could be very useful for predicting the success of future invaders.”Davis and his colleagues analyzed a data set that began with Henry David Thoreau’s cataloging of plants around Walden Pond in the 1850s, when the famed naturalist kept meticulous notes documenting natural history, plant species occurrences, and flowering times. Since then, the mean annual temperature around Concord, Mass., has increased by 2.4 degrees Celsius, or 4.3 degrees Fahrenheit, causing some plants to shift their flowering time by as much as three weeks in response to ever-earlier spring thaws.“We set out to use this data set to examine which plants have been the beneficiaries of climate change,” Davis says. “Our research suggests quite decisively that nonnative and invasive species have been the climate change winners. Climate change will lead to an as-yet-unknown shuffling of species, and it appears that invasive species will become more dominant.”Davis and colleagues compared a plethora of plant traits — everything from height at maturity to flower diameter to seed weight — against species’ response to more than a century and a half of climate change. Alone among all these traits, plants that have fared well share a common phenology, a suite of traits related to the timing of seasonal events such as flowering, leaf growth, germination, and migration.By contrast, many plants with a less flexible flowering schedule — and thus prone to flowering at suboptimal times — have declined in population, in many cases to the point of local extinction.The current work builds on a 2008 paper by Davis and colleagues that showed that some of the plant families hit hardest by climate change at Walden Pond include beloved species like lilies, orchids, violets, roses, and dogwoods. The scientists also reported that some 27 percent of all species Thoreau recorded from 1851 to 1858 are now locally extinct, and another 36 percent are so sparse that extinction may be imminent.“Invasive species can be intensely destructive to biodiversity, ecosystem function, agriculture, and human health,” Davis says. “In the United States alone the estimated annual cost of invasive species exceeds $120 billion. Our results could help in developing predictive models to assess the threat of future invasive species, which may become greatly exacerbated in the face of continued climate change.”Davis’ co-authors on the PLoS ONE paper are Charles G. Willis of Harvard and Duke University, Brad R. Ruhfel and Jonathan B. Losos of Harvard, Richard B. Primack of Boston University, and Abraham J. Miller-Rushing of the USA National Phenology Network and the Wildlife Society. Their work was supported by Harvard University.
When humans have parasites, the organisms live in our bodies, co-opt our resources, and cause disease. However, it turns out that parasites themselves can have their own co-habitants.Researchers from Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University have found that the pathogenicity of the sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis — the cause of trichomoniasis — is fueled by a viral invader. Trichomoniasis infections are more common than all bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD) combined. Annually, trichomoniasis affects nearly 250 million people, typically as vaginitis in women and urethritis in men.“Trichomoniasis is associated with devastating consequences for women due to inflammation and related risks of reproductive disease,” said Raina Fichorova, leader of the research team as well as associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “Our future goal is to determine how the viral symbiont and its inflammatory ‘halo’ affect the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight.”“This is only one of two incidences that we know of for which the pathogenicity of a protozoan virus has been characterized,” said Max Nibert, Harvard Medical School professor of microbiology and immunology and co-author of the paper. “When found together, the result is an increase in virulence of the protozoan parasite to the human host, leading to exacerbated disease.”This study, which was initiated by a Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grant, will be published online in Public Library of Science (PLoS) One.Rather than invading human cells, Trichomonas vaginalis attaches to their surface and feeds on them, sometimes remaining asymptomatic for a period of time. The virus, called Trichomonasvirus, infects the protozoan and increases its pathogenic power by fueling virus-specific inflammatory responses.Moreover, carrying the protozoan parasite predisposes women to acquire sexually transmitted viruses, particularly HIV and human papillomavirus, or HPV, both of which can lead to serious diseases such as AIDS and cervical cancer, respectively. Fichorova and Nibert have recently obtained funding from the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research to find out if the virus itself is directly responsible for increased HIV risk.According to Nibert, the virus-parasite symbiosis is the norm rather than the exception with this particular protozoan. Upwards of 80 percent of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates carry the virus. “Unlike flu viruses, for example, this virus can’t spread by jumping out of the cell into another one,” said Nibert, who has pioneered molecular biology work on double-stranded RNA viruses, a category that includes Trichomonasvirus. “It just spreads between cells when they divide or mate.”According to the researchers, it is this double-stranded nature of the viral genome that contributes to increased virulence of the protozoan parasite. “The double-stranded RNA seems important to the signaling process,” added Nibert.Currently, trichomoniasis is treated with the antibiotic metronidazole. But this treatment is only effective on the protozoan. “When the medication is used, the dying or stressed protozoa release unharmed virions, which then signal to the human cells,” explained Fichorova. As a result, the symptoms are aggravated, and this in turn might increase the danger trichomoniasis poses to pregnant women and their children.“Ahead is more research to better understand the viral cycle and structural features that might be vulnerable to drugs, which will lead to opening new doors for better treatment of trichomoniasis and related diseases,” said Fichorova. “Our complementary expertise, interdisciplinary team efforts, and strong collaboration is the key to our future success.”Nibert added that basic research on Trichomonas vaginalis is not nearly as supported as he thinks it should be. “It is unfortunate that a human pathogen of such worldwide significance has been neglected to such a degree,” he said.The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, a Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grant, the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, and the National Center for Research Resources.
Some lessons feel like a root canal, and that’s just fine A jubilant crowd celebrated a victory in a soccer stadium in Huye, Rwanda, this past fall. The fanfare wasn’t for a soccer match, but rather for the commencement ceremony at the University of Rwanda — including its first-ever graduating class of dentists.With a population of more than 12 million people and fewer than 40 registered dentists to serve them, adding 10 new graduates with bachelor’s degrees in dental surgery was a milestone for the future of the nation’s oral health.Since 2011, Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) has been a leading partner in the effort to launch the new dental school and bachelor of dental surgery degree program at the University of Rwanda.Donna Hackley, HSDM instructor in oral health policy and epidemiology, was in the crowd beaming with pride as the 10 newly minted Rwandan dentists marched past her to receive their degrees. Hackley had spent the past five years working with colleagues in Rwanda to see the achievement.“It is an incredible blessing to be part of this historic moment in Rwanda. It is some of the most challenging, enjoyable, and rewarding work I’ve ever done,” Hackley said.What it took to get there began 7½ years ago with an initiative started by Partners In Health (PIH), the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), and the Rwandan ministries of health and education. Together, the entities launched the Rwanda Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program — a program to advance medical education and improve health care delivery systems in the country.,“Given the connection of oral health to overall health, the rise of noncommunicable diseases, and the potential for preventive care to mitigate disease, it was critical that dentistry be included in the program,” said Jane Barrow, HSDM associate dean for global and community health.Barrow urged representatives from HRH to include a dental school in their plans for a world-class education system for health professionals. An extensive planning process began with representatives from HSDM, the Rwandan ministries, the dental therapy program at the Kigali Health Institute, CHAI, PIH, and the University of Maryland with the goal of launching Rwanda’s first dental school and dental surgery program.Brittany Seymour, assistant professor of oral health policy and epidemiology, accompanied Barrow on the initial HRH team visit to help make the case for a dental surgery program to the Rwandan ministers of health and education.“We were thrilled to see dentistry included in this groundbreaking project,” Seymour said. “Being the first of anything is difficult, and we faced unique challenges starting the program from scratch, but this signified a transformative moment in global health: a movement toward contextually relevant approaches and ownership, long-term sustainability, and capacity-building for oral health education and delivery systems within the Rwandan national health system.”A team of faculty and alumni served on site in Rwanda as faculty mentors and teachers, working with local colleagues to build the educational infrastructure from the ground up.“We were very fortunate to have a dedicated team of Rwandan, HSDM, and University of Maryland faculty who brought a wide range of experience and expertise to the project and who were able to contribute in all aspects, from curriculum design and mentoring to research and community outreach,” Barrow said.Brian Swann, assistant professor of oral health policy and epidemiology, was one of the early volunteers who served six months in Rwanda.“I wanted be in the first wave of volunteers in order to better appreciate the culture of the people we were to serve,” Swann said. “Cultural sensitivity is vital. Together both teams had to learn how to best communicate in a way that was accurate. I also wanted people to know that we were in this program to stay and that we believed they had capacity to sustain their program.”,In the fall of 2013, the new school welcomed its inaugural class into the five-year dental surgery degree program. The students spent their first two years of training with their medical school classmates at the University of Rwanda’s School of Medicine in Huye before beginning dental training in the capital city of Kigali. They were steadfast in their desire to learn. The inaugural class adopted the nickname “The Pioneerz” and became close friends.“Some of the students had never experienced a dental visit and did not know any dentists,” Hackley said. “This was not only a new school and program, but totally new territory for them, so they truly are pioneers. They were faithful and resilient throughout the program. I’m incredibly proud of all they have achieved.”The learning curve went both ways, and faculty found they often had to keep up with the eager students.“The passion for education and desire to gain knowledge among the Rwandese students is unmatched. As a faculty member, I involved myself with the students beyond the classroom to accommodate their thirst for knowledge. As a teacher, there is nothing more joyful than being surrounded by the knowledge-seeking eager students, and Rwandese students gave me enormous joy,” said Mohammed Razzaque, visiting professor of oral health policy and epidemiology.Important work was also done outside the classroom to better understand Rwanda’s oral health needs. Last year, Hackley worked with colleagues in Rwanda and at Tufts School of Dental Medicine to plan and conduct the nation’s first oral health survey. The study found a substantial burden of oral diseases and conditions, with pediatric and adult populations having many unmet dental caries and periodontal treatment needs — underscoring the importance of greater access to dental care and the need for the new school. The results will inform workforce and delivery system planning, allow for oral health monitoring, and build research capacity.“In rural areas we need more care. People outside of town suffer a lot because of lack of care,” said Julienne Murererehe, assistant lecturer at the University of Rwanda. “Graduation is a very big achievement not only for the students and faculty, but for the whole country. It’s important for the development of oral health services in Rwanda.”HRH funding will provide ongoing support for the program for the next six years. HSDM faculty will continue to assist with curriculum delivery and provide technical and strategic support as the school shifts to its new campus.“It was hard work,” acknowledged University of Rwanda School of Dentistry Dean Chrispinus Mumena. “We have done our best and worked together with team spirit, to reach farther than any one of us could reach alone. I am very proud of our graduating students. I am also very pleased with the collaborations between our faculty and the HRH Rwanda program.”The Pioneerz have fulfilled their own dreams of becoming the first homegrown dentists prepared to serve their nation.“I’m very excited and happy for today’s graduation, it is the day I have waited for, for a long time,” said graduate Joseph Nshimiyimana. “We are going to do our best to achieve more for our country.”,Related Harvard dental students’ hands-on learning helps fill gaps in care