Snails get stressed out, too—and it’s not good for them either. Scientists have found that multiple sources of stress can impair the memories of the slimy gastropods. A team placed pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis, like the one above) in water-filled beakers that varied in stressfulness: Some were overcrowded, some contained water low in calcium (stressful, for a snail), and some were both overcrowded and low in calcium; the beakers varied inconsequentially in oxygen levels. Then, the team placed the snails in an uncrowded beaker containing water with a normal level of calcium and trained the snails to not come up for air—no big deal for pond snails, who can also get oxygen by absorbing it underwater through their skin. Each time a snail popped its breathing hole out from under its shell and above water, it received a gentle poke. After the lesson, the snails were put to a test: Could they remember to take in oxygen just underwater? The team reports today in PLOS ONE that whereas snails trained after spending time in an environment with just one stressor were able to remember the training for minutes or even hours, snails that were exposed to the multistressor environment were not able to form a memory of it at all; they came up for air despite their training. Because snail brains experience stress in a similar way to mammal brains, the findings are potentially analogous to higher-stakes, human-scale scenarios—like trying to absorb important information after hanging out in a crowded conference room, while hungry and tired.See more ScienceShots. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)
DefinitionVertebroplasty is often an outpatient procedure used to treat painful compression fractures in the spine. In a compression fracture, all or part of a spine bone collapses.DescriptionVertebroplasty is done in a hospital or outpatient clinic.You may have local anesthesia (awake and unable to feel pain). You will likely also receive medicine to help you relax and feel sleepy.You may receive general anesthesia. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain.You lie face down on a table. The health care provider cleans the area of your back and applies medicine to numb the area.The doctor places a needle through the skin and into the spine bone. Real-time x-ray images are used to guide the doctor to the correct area in your lower back.Cement is then injected into the broken spine bone to make sure it does not collapse again.This procedure is similar to kyphoplasty. However, kyphoplastyalso involves theuse a balloon that is inflated at the end of the needle to add space between the vertebrae.Why the Procedure Is PerformedA common cause of compression fractures of the spine is thinning of your bones, or osteoporosis. Your doctor may recommend this procedure if you have severe and disabling pain for 2 months or more that does not get better with bed rest, pain medicines, and physical therapy.Your doctor may also recommend this procedure if you have a painful compression fractures of the spine due toCancer, including multiple myelomaInjury that caused broken bones in the spineRisksadvertisementVertebroplasty is generally safe. Complications may include:BleedingInfectionAllergic reactions to medicinesBreathing or heart problems if you have general anesthesiaLeakage of the bone cement into surrounding area (this can cause pain if it affects the spine or nerves). This problem is more common with this procedure than kyphoplasty. You may need other types of surgery to correct leakage if it occurs.Before the ProcedureAlways tell your doctor or nurse:If you could be pregnantWhatdrugs you are taking, including those you bought without a prescriptionIf you have been drinking a lot of alcoholDuring the days before the surgery:You may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen, coumadin (warfarin), and any other drugs that make it hard for your blood to clot several days before.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of the surgery.If you smoke, try to stop.On the day of the surgery:You will usually be told not to drink or eat a anything for several hours before the test.Take your drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive.After the ProcedureYou will probably go home on the same day of surgery. You should not drive, unless your doctor says it is OK.After the procedure:You should be able to walk. However, its best to stay in bed for the first 24 hours, except to use the bathroom.After 24 hours, slowly return to your regular activities.Avoid heavy lifting and strenuous activities for at least 6 weeks.Apply ice to the wound area if you have pain where the needle was inserted.Outlook (Prognosis)Patients who have this procedure often have less pain and a better quality of life after the surgery.They usually need fewer pain medicines, and can move better than before.ReferencesEsses SI, McGuire R, Jenkins J, et al. The treatment of symptomatic osteoporotic spinal compression fractures. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011 Mar;19(3):176-82.Anselmetti GC, Muto M, Guglielmi G, et al. Percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010 May;48(3):641-9.Review Date:10/14/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Top Indian shuttler P.V. Sindhu suffered a shock defeat in the women’s singles quarter-final to be ousted from the World Championships here on Friday.The 11th seeded Sindhu lost to South Korean eighth seed Sung Ji Hyun 17-21, 21-19, 16-21 in an hour and 22 minutes at the 9,000-seater Istora Senayan.If Sindhu had made it to the quarter-final she would have been assured of at least a bronze medal. Earlier on Thursday two-time bronze-medallist Sindhu stunned Olympic champion and former World No. 1 Chinese Li Xuerui in a hard-fought contest.The World No. 13 Sindhu, who had spent most of the time this season nursing an injury and struggling for form, regained her touch in this competition.
Kharswan (Jharkhand), Apr 9 (PTI) Jharkhand Chief Minister Ragbubar Das today announced the government would reserve two per cent employment in various departments for meritorious sportspersons of the state.Inaugurating the National Archery Championship (Indian round) by darting an arrow at Arjuna stadium here, Das said currently two per cent job quota for medal-winning sportspersons is there only in state police department.Now it will be applicable in all departments, he said.”A Kamal (lotus) Club will be set up in each panchayat, block and district level of the state to promote talented sportspersons,” Das said.A residential football training centre will be set up in a months time in Kharswan while the fourth Archery training centre of the state will be set up at Kumardungi High School, Chaibasa (West Singhbhum) this year, he announced.He said the government has plans to open such archery centres at Chandanquari and Bokaro also.The state government has already set up archery training centres at Seraikela, Dumka and Silli.The government would host sports events at panchayat, district-level, besides a state-level competition before November 15, the Foundation Day of the state.Das said the government has been providing Rs 3000 stipend to archers whereas, the welfare department provide Rs 3 lakhs for purchase of equipment.The Chief Minister assured all possible assistance to the sportspersons to get due recognition at International level.Around 1500 sportspersons including 750 from Jharkhand will be enrolled in the proposed Sports University in the state, he said.Former Jharkhand chief minister Arjun Munda and Jharkhand Sports Minister Amar Bauri were also present on the occasion among others. PTI BS SUS TIR LNSadvertisement
ICC wants women’s cricket at 2022 Commonwealth GamesFollowing a presentation by the Commonwealth Games Federation, the International Cricket Council board agreed to apply for a women’s competition at the Durban Games during its annual conference in Edinburgh.No difference between Kumble and Shastri, says Stuart BinnyAll-rounder Stuart Binny has said there is no difference between former team director Ravi Shastri and new head coach Anil Kumble as both shared the same desire to win. Argentines take to streets, urge Messi to return to national teamHundreds of Argentines protested in the pouring rain on Saturday, demanding that football star Lionel Messi return to Argentina’s national team after he unexpectedly quit following a loss in the regional Copa America final.Euro 2016: France need swift start to escape Iceland eruptionFrance must take the game to Iceland right from the start of their European Championship quarter-final on Sunday or their dream of glory on home soil might end up buried in volcanic ash.Serena Williams, Viktor Troicki fined USD 10,000 at WimbledonViktor Troicki was fined for his astonishing Wimbledon meltdown while Serena Williams was punished for smashing her racquet.
Former Mumbai Indians captain Harbhajan Singh seems to be enjoying the fact that his Indian Premier League team have become the first and only team till now to have qualified for the playoffs.Harbhajan Singh went for a lunch date with his wife Geeta Basra today and posted a photograph of the same on his Twitter handle. He mentioned that he enjoyed the dimsums on his table.Lunch with ???Biwi???º oops BOSS???I mean @Geeta_Basra #dimsum at its best @TridentHotels nariman point??? pic.twitter.com/CWYbHPkZ7n- Harbhajan Turbanator (@harbhajan_singh) May 13, 2017Geeta Basra has been a constant support for Harbhajan Singh travelling with him for all the matches along with their daughter Hinaya Heer Plaha.(BCCI photo) Mumbai Indians have already reached the next stage and will be playing against Kolkata Knight Riders tonight in a bid to finish on top of the table.Harbhajan Singh has been extremely economical and crucial for Mumbai Indians this season having picked 8 wickets in the 11 matches played at an economy rate of 6.48.
Afghanistan chief selector Dawlat Khan Ahmadzai on May 7 justified the unexpected sacking of ODI skipper Asghar Afghan ahead of the World Cup, saying the decision was taken looking at the long-term future of the team.The 3-member selection panel led by Ahmadzai announced three captains for three formats last month, in a move that led to unrest in the team with star players Rashid Khan and Mohammad Nabi openly voicing their concerns over the timing of the decision.”We realized that we can’t win the World Cup at this moment under Asghar’s captaincy or anyone else who would have been in charge. We made the decision not just thinking about this World Cup, we are thinking about the 2023 edition.”We will be getting 10 matches with full members and we feel it will provide perfect training for the new captain (Gulbadin Naib),” said Ahmadzai, who is a former Afghanistan fast bowler, in response to a PTI query.Asked about the need for announcing split captaincy less than two months from the World Cup, the chief selector said: “Like you are expressing your concern to me, there were concerns expressed by the players (Rashid and Nabi) and the entire issue was handled professionally.”They felt it was not the right time to change captaincy but later understood that it was in the best interest of the team.”Asghar was the captain in all formats but now Naib will lead the team in the 50-over World Cup, Rashid in T20s and Rahmat Shah in Tests. Ahmadzai insisted Naib is the right choice to captain Afghanistan in ODIs.advertisement”The team members, including Rashid and Nabi, are now happy for Gulbadin. He is not a new man. He has been playing for 17 years and has captaincy experience at the first-class and U-19 level.”Asghar himself has said that Gulbadin is like his younger brother who believes that Asghar’s experience will come in handy in the World Cup. They are a united front now. Changes happen. Sri Lanka also changed their captain,” said Ahmadzai referring to Naib, who has played 52 ODIs and 38 T20 Internationals.On a lighter note, Afghanistan Cricket Board CEO Asadullah Khan, who was sitting alongside the chief selector, said: “MS Dhoni also plays under Virat Kohli.”Leggie Rashid is Afghanistan’s biggest star at the moment, having tasted success in leagues all around the world including the IPL.Asked why he was not chosen to lead the team in the World Cup beginning May 30 in the UK, Ahmadzai said: “Rashid is not ready for all formats but he is ready for T20. He is too busy playing (all around the world).”The team, which made its World Cup debut in 2015, is currently preparing in South Africa.The chief selector said the aim is to make the last-four of the mega event and surprise a few teams.”There was no Rashid or Mujeeb in 2015 so this time we are aiming for a semifinal berth. With the team composition we have, we can definitely surprise a few teams.”Asked if Afghanistan is too dependant on their star spinners, Ahmadzai disagreed.”Hamid Hasan is back into the fast bowling attack and that is a big boost. He has been a great fast bowler for Afghanistan and will lead the pace attack alongside Dawlat Zadran.”He is also happy with the team’s preparation for the quadrennial event.”Two things are required for the team to perform well: selection and preparation. We have been working on that for the past six months. We have played in Scotland and South Africa, we feel the preparation is complete.”We have a well-balanced team. Rashid has done well in county cricket, Mujeeb can use the new ball and we have potent fast bowlers who can exploit English conditions.”Talking about the health of the game back home, the chief selector said the sport is growing rapidly and “there are around five lakh cricketers in the country and most of them want to be Rashid.””There is also a lot of work going at the first-class level. Shah is specifically working on building the Test team.”Also Read | 2019 World Cup: Hamid Hassan surprise pick in Afghanistan 15-man squadAlso Read | Swapping Kalashnikovs for bat and pads: Afghan cricket, the Taliban and peace
Napoli are hoping to have edged ahead of Manchester United and Liverpool in the race for Lille forward Nicolas Pepe, with the Serie A side one of four “big clubs” to have tabled a bid of €80 million (£72m/$89m).Various destinations have been mooted for the Ivory Coast international this summer.It is, however suitors from Serie A that have raised the stakes by meeting the demands of Pepe’s current employers in Ligue 1. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Emery out of jail – for now – as brilliant Pepe papers over Arsenal’s cracks What is Manchester United’s ownership situation and how would Kevin Glazer’s sale of shares affect the club? Ox-rated! Dream night in Genk for Liverpool ace after injury nightmare Messi a man for all Champions League seasons – but will this really be Barcelona’s? Napoli have made no secret of their interest in the 24-year-old winger, with manager Carlo Ancelotti admitting that he is hoping to see a deal pushed through.He told reporters when quizzed on links to an exciting talent: “Obviously, we are interested in Pepe, his agents are here and there’s no point hiding that. Negotiations are in progress and we’ll see what happens.“Pepe is a wide attacking player. We want to find someone who can play between the lines.”Lille president Gerard Lopez has now confirmed that Napoli have met the club’s asking price for Pepe, freeing them to press ahead with transfer talks.They are, however, not the only ones in the mix, with a man who netted 23 times across all competitions last season now in a position of being able to make a personal call on where he wants to go.Lopez told Tuttosport: “Last year we asked Pepe to stay with the promise that we would sell in this transfer window.“We received offers that satisfy us economically from four big clubs.“[Napoli chairman Aurelio] De Laurentiis has satisfied our request for €80m. Now it is up to the player to decide where he wants to go.“He must make that decision based on the offers that his agents have received from the four clubs.“On Monday, Pepe will return from vacation and I believe that by the middle of the week he will have made a decision.”Along with leading sides in the Premier League and Serie A, Pepe has also been linked with Ligue 1 champions Paris Saint-Germain.He must now weigh up the offers he has on the table and determine where he feels his future development will be best served.
Story Highlights The Consumer Affairs Commission (CAC) is currently developing mobile apps, which, along with the staging of quarterly media briefings, will help to heighten public awareness about the agency’s work and services. These will also inform consumers on developments in the commercial trade as well as how best they can safeguard their interests when making purchases. Details were outlined by Chairman, Kent Gammon, and Chief Executive Officer, Dolsie Allen, during the CAC’s press briefing at the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, in New Kingston, on July 5. The Consumer Affairs Commission (CAC) is currently developing mobile apps, which, along with the staging of quarterly media briefings, will help to heighten public awareness of the agency’s work and services.These will also inform consumers on developments in the commercial trade as well as how best they can safeguard their interests when making purchases.Details were outlined by Chairman, Kent Gammon, and Chief Executive Officer, Dolsie Allen, during the CAC’s press briefing at the Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, in New Kingston, on July 5.Mr. Gammon said the CAC is in the process of finalising an app that will provide consumers with alerts on various developments, adding that further details are expected shortly.For her part, Mrs. Allen said the briefings are being held “to engage the media in a very special way to advise and update (the public) on some of the work that we have been doing”.Mrs. Allen noted that the CAC utilises a three-pronged approach in fulfilling its mandate of safeguarding consumers’ interest.These, she outlined, are consumer education; complaints resolution, specifically between the providers of goods and services and clients; and market surveillance/research.She emphasised that the CAC is doing a great deal of work to heighten its effectiveness as a consumer-protection agency, in its quest to remain “relevant and impactful”.Mr. Gammon also underscored the importance of the press briefings in disseminating information, adding that this would be complemented by the agency’s website, which would also highlight details of the CAC’s activities.In this regard, he encouraged persons to visit at: www.cac.gov.jm and make their queries on matters of concern, or for which they need clarification or additional information.